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Dr. Maria M. Ttofi

Dr. Maria M. Ttofi

University Lecturer in Social Psychology and Crime

Institute Data Protection Officer

BA 2000, BA 2005, MPhil 2006, PhD 2009


Office Phone: +44 (0)1223 767186

Biography:

Dr Maria M. Ttofi is a Life Member of Clare Hall College. She also served as a Junior Research Fellow (2011-12) and a Title C Official Fellow (2012-17) at Wolfson College. She is interested in the development of antisocial behaviour, crime, and violence through the life course. Earlier research has focused on highly aggressive and victimized children; the long-term impact of negative childhood experiences on mental health and offending behavior in adult life; and early prevention and intervention research against youth aggression, antisocial behaviour and victimization. Current research looks at the interplay between mental health and crime and in effective strategies for healthy reintegration of antisocial individuals in society. She works closely with Professor David Farrington and she is the Deputy Director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

For her contributions to psychological criminology and intervention research, she was awarded the 2009 Nigel Walker Prize (Cambridge University), 2012 Young Scholar Award of the European Association of Psychology and Law as well as the 2012 Early Career Award of the Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York.

Previous post-doctoral fellowships and research projects have been supported by the Leverhulme Trust, the Newton Trust, the British Academy, the US National Institute of Justice, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention, and the Jacobs Foundation.

Maria is part of the Violence Research Centre.

 

Research Interests

Programme Evaluation and Crime Prevention

A major part of Maria's work focuses on intervention research and programme evaluation, with a special interest in the effectiveness of bullying prevention programmes. She completed, in collaboration with Professor David P. Farrington, a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes in reducing bullying perpetration and victimization. Project outputs are available in a comprehensive report for the Campbell Collaboration(53 different programme evaluations included in the systematic review; 44 evaluations included in the meta-analysis) and in a shorter journal article in the Journal of Experimental Criminology. Key features of implementation (e.g. methodological design, duration of the intervention, etc) and key intervention components (e.g. teacher training, parent training, anti-bullying videos, classroom rules etc) were correlated with effect sizes in an effort to explain what works best, for whom and under what circumstances. This project has been updated by Hannah Gaffney, PhD researcher, who has worked as a research assistant for a Jacobs Foundation Project, with a total of 100 evaluations of antibullying programmes up to 2018; and with a total of 26 independent evaluations of programmes against cyberaggression and cybervictimization.

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Maladjustment in Adult Life

Another major part of her research focuses on developmental and life-course criminology. Most of her work in this research area has so far revolved around: (a) the developmental course and consequences of early behaviour problems (with a special focus primarily on aggressive behaviour of children and adolescents); and (b) the detrimental effects of early negative life experiences of children on later development (with a focus primarily on bullied children and adolescents).

Maria has conducted a series of interconnected systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies on the association of school aggression and victimization with internalizing (e.g. depression and anxiety) and externalizing (e.g. delinquency, violent and criminal offending) problems in adult life. Part of her British Academy Project on 'Health and Criminal Outcomes of School Bullying' involved the accumulation of co-ordinated early risk factors research, based on about 30 major prospective longitudinal studies regarding the development of conduct problems, crime and violence through the life course. The main outcomes of this project appear in two edited volumes of peer-reviewed journals, the Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research and the Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, in collaboration with Professors Farrington and Lösel, as well as in a comprehensive report conducted under the aegis of the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention. The latter report complemented the previous JACPR and CBMH meta-analyses by providing results of two additional meta-analyses.

Protective Factors interrupting the Continuity from School Aggression to Offending and Depression in Adult Life

Youth aggression and peer victimization are significant risk markers for a range of anti-social, criminal and adverse health outcomes later in life. It is therefore imperative to investigate protective factors that interrupt this continuity and that confer resilience on aggressive and/or victimized youth. This is the essence of an edited volume that was carried out for the Journal of School Violence. The special issue presents results on resilience and protective factors against the negative impact of youth aggression and peer victimization based on data from major prospective longitudinal studies from Europe, Australia and the United States. The aim of this edited work is to guide intervention work by identifying key protective factors that promote positive outcomes among vulnerable children, and in particular for school bullies and victimized children at school.

Criminal Careers in Self-Reports Compared with Official Records

The two most common measurement methods for the key variable of offending are to use official records of arrests/convictions or self-reports of offending. These two methods have different advantages and problems. A key question concerns the agreement between official records and self-reports. While self-reports reveal more offenders and offences, to what extent do the worst offenders according to self-reports coincide with the worst offenders according to official records? And to what extent are risk factors similar for self-reported and official offending? If a risk factor predicts official but not self-reported offending, is it predicting the likelihood of an offender being convicted? If a risk factor predicts self-reported but not official offending, is it predicting the likelihood that an offender will admit an offence? These questions are addressed in a 2014 edited volume in Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, in which main findings from major prospective longitudinal studies (from Europe, Canada, the States and Australia) are presented.

Resilience against General Offending and Violence

Why do people refrain from crime? Resilience (the dynamic process of encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity) has shaped criminological thinking about why individuals abstain from crime in spite of childhood adversities. Resilience and desistance models have also shaped our criminological thinking on 'turning points' that enable individuals to escape their delinquent lifestyles later in life. In a 2016 edited volume in the Journal of Criminal Justice, the focus is on protective factors against involvement in crime and violence although, admittedly, research on protective factors that facilitate desistance from a deviant lifestyle is of equal importance. Systematic investigations of protective factors against youth offending and violence are presented based on the co-ordinated efforts of research teams from eleven major prospective longitudinal studies in the US, Canada, Europe, and Australia.

 

FUNDED PROJECTS:

 

2007 – 2009 

 

‘Evaluation of School Based Programmes to Reduce Bullying and Victimization’ 

Co-Investigator (Principal Investigator: Professor David P. Farrington)

Funders: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention; Danish National Institute for Social Research; US National Institute of Justice; £21,500 GBP 

 

2015 – 2016 

‘Evaluation of Effectiveness of Programmes against Bullying /Victimization and Cyberbulliying/Cybervictimization’

Principal Investigator (Co-Investigator: Professor David P. Farrington)

Funder: Jacobs Foundation; £19,660 GBP 

 

2010 – 2011

‘Criminal and Health Outcomes of Children Involved in Youth Aggression and Victimization’

Principal Investigator (Co-Investigators: Professor David P. Farrington and Friedrich Losel)

Funders: British Academy and Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention; £16,093 GBP 

 

2012 – 2014 

 

‘Protective Factors that Interrupt the Continuity from School Bullying to Anti-Social Behaviour and Offending Later in Life: Implications for Prevention and Treatment’

Principal Investigator 

Funders: Jacobs Foundation and Newton Trust; £75,657 GBP 

 

2014

 

‘Resilience against School Aggression’ (continuation of above project)

Principal Investigator (Co-Investigators: Professor David P. Farrington and Friedrich Losel)

Funders: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention; £10,125 GBP 

 

2009 – 2012

‘Protective Factors against Youth Offending and Violence’ 

Principal Investigator

Funders: Leverhulme Trust and Newton Trust; £136,977 GBP 

Teaching

Courses Taught/Co-Ordinated:

  • Research Methods
  • Criminological and Legal Psychology
  • Crime Prevention
  • Crime and Criminal Justice
  • Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (for the SSRMC; 2011-14)

Ph.D. Supervision

Maria would be keen to supervise PhD students interested in the interplay between psychology and crime, including issues of family, school and social factors related to juvenile delinquency and youth offending; youth aggression and victimization; criminal careers; crime and health. Students wishing to get in contact informally in order to discuss potential research ideas are welcome to email her, with a brief CV and a short research proposal. I mainly supervise doctoral theses that use a quantitative approach.

Dr Ttofi is the Deputy Director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. She strongly welcomes research proposals for PhD projects utilizing CSDD data. Interested applicants are encouraged to approach her (email: mt394@cam.ac.uk) for initial inquiries and further guidance.

  • Rebecca Raffan-Gowar 
    Cost-benefit analyses of crime prevention programmes
  • Hannah Gaffney
    What works in Cyber Bullying Intervention and Prevention? Exploring effective intervention/prevention strategies and neglected risk factors.
  • Kim Reising
    Crime and Health: Long-term bidirectional and intergenerational effects between mental/physical health and offending behavior
  • Bomin Lee
    Grandparenting and grandchild antisocial behaviour: Intergenerational transmission of family factors and problem behaviour
  • Guy Skinner

    Mental Health and Offending:  Inter-Generational Relationships and Comparability between GP-reported and Self-Reported Data in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

 

Key Publications

Articles in Peer-reviewed Journals

  1. Gaffney, H., Farrington, D.P., Espelage, D.L., Ttofi, M.M. (2018).  Are cyberbullying intervention and prevention programs effective? A systematic and meta-analytical review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.002
  2. Gaffney, H., Ttofi, M.M., & Farrington, D.P. (accepted). Evaluating the effectiveness of school-bullying prevention programs: An updated meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.07.001
  3. Reising, K., Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). Depression and anxiety outcomes of offending trajectories: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Journal of Criminal Justice, in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2018.05.002
  4. Reising, K., Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). The impact of longitudinal offending trajectories on mental health: Lifetime consequences and intergenerational transfer. Journal of Criminal Justice, in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2018.04.003
  5. Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Crago, R. V. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of convictions for different types of offenses. Victims & Offenders, 12(1), 1-20.
  6. Farrington, D. P., Gaffney, H., Lösel, F., & Ttofi, M. M. (2017). Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of developmental prevention programs in reducing delinquency, aggression, and bullying. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 91-106.
  7. Farrington, D. P., Gaffney, H., & Ttofi, M. M. (2017). Systematic reviews of explanatory risk factors for violence, offending, and delinquency. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 24-36.
  8. Valdebenito, S., Ttofi, M. M., Eisner, M., & Gaffney, H. (2017). Weapon carrying in and out of school among pure bullies, pure victims and bully-victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 62-77.
  9. Zych, I., Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). Empathy and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Different Bullying Roles: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, in press, DOI: 10.1177/1524838016683456
  10. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Piquero, A.R. (2016). Risk, promotive and protective factors in youth offending: Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 63-70.
  11. Jennings, W. G., Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Theobald, D. (2016). The intersections of drug use continuity with nonviolent offending and involvement in violence over the life course: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 14, 95-109.
  12. Mercer, N., Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Keijsers, L., Branje, S., & Meeus, W. (2016). Childhood predictors and adult life success of adolescent delinquency abstainers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 613-624.
  13. Theobald, D., Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., Crago, B. (2016). Risk factors for dating violence versus cohabiting violence: Results from the third generation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 26, 229-239.
  14. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Piquero, A.R., & DeLisi, M. (2016). Editorial. Protective factors against offending and violence: Results from prospective longitudinal studies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 1-3.
  15. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Piquero, A.R., Lösel, F., DeLisi, M., & Murray, J. (2016). Intelligence as a protective factor against offending: A meta-analytic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 4-18.
  16. Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Lösel, F., Crago, R. V., & Theodorakis, N. (2016). School bullying and drug use later in life: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 31, 1, 8-27.
  17. Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Coid, J. W. (2015). Intergenerational Similarities in Risk Factors for Offending. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1(1), 48-62.
  18. Ttofi, M. M. (2015). Adolescent bullying linked to depression in early adulthood: Evidence supports early intervention. British Medical Journal, 350, h2694.
  19. Valdebenito, S., Ttofi, MM., & Eisner, M. (2015). Prevalence rates of drug use among school bullies and victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 137-146.
  20. Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Coid, J. W. (2014). Prevalence, frequency, onset, desistance and criminal career duration in self-reports compared with official records. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24(4), 241-253.
  21. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2014). Editorial: Criminal careers in self-reports compared with official records. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24, 225-228.
  22. Ttofi, M.M., Bowes, L., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2014). Protective factors that interrupt the continuity from school bullying to later internalizing and externalizing problems: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Journal of School Violence, 13, 5-38.
  23. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2014). Interrupting the continuity from school bullying to later internalizing and externalizing problems: Findings from cross-national comparative studies. Journal of School Violence, 13, 1-4.
  24. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a predictor of violence later in life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 17, 405-418. Reprinted in Spanish as: Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a predictor of offending and violence in later life: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. In. Bernal, A.O., Jimenez, S.Y., & Smith, P.K. (Eds.), School bullying and violence: International Perspectives. Madrid, Spain: Biblioteca Nueva, in press.
  25. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Bullying prevention programs: The importance of peer intervention, disciplinary methods and age variations. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8, 443-462.
  26. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Risk and protective factors, longitudinal research and bullying prevention. New Directions for Youth Development, 133, 85-98.
  27. Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., Stallings, R., & Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization as predictors of delinquency and depression in the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 74-81.
  28. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Bullying as a predictor of offending, violence and later life outcomes. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 90-98.
  29. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Lösel, F. (2011). Editorial: School bullying and later offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 77-79.
  30. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2011). Editorial: Health consequences of school bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 60-62.
  31. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Do the victims of school bullies tend to become depressed later in life? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 63-73.
  32. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). The predictive efficiency of school bullying versus later offending: A systematic/meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 80-89. Reprinted in French as: Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Le lien entre situations de harc&?egrave;lement et risques de d&?eacute;linquance: Compte-rendu de recherche: un examen systematique/meta-analystique des &?eacute;tudes longitudinales. Cahiers de la Securit&?eacute;, 16, 162-169..
  33. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7, 27-56.
  34. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Coid, J.W. (2009). Development of adolescence-limited, late-onset, and persistent offenders from age 8 to age 48. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 150-163.
  35. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008) Bullying: short-term and long-term effects, and the importance of Defiance Theory in explanation and prevention. Victims and Offenders, 3 (2), 289-312.
  36. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Reintegrative shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 34 (4), 352-368.

Books

  1. Zych, I., Farrington, D. P., Llorent, V. J., & Ttofi, M. M. (2017). Protecting Children Against Bullying and Its Consequences. Springer.

Book Chapters and Miscellaneous Publications

  1. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Lösel, F. (2016). Developmental and Social Prevention. In. Weisburd, D., Farrington, D.P., & Gill, C. (Eds.), What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation: Lessons from Systematic Reviews (pp. 15-76). New York: Springer Series on Evidence-Base Crime Policy.<\li>
  2. Theodorakis, N., Ttofi, M.M., & Farrington, D.P. (2016). Crime and Punishment in the United Kingdom. In. Jennings, W.G., Higgins, G.E., Maldonado-Molina, M., & Khey, D. (EdS). The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment (pp. 1-6). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781118519639.wbecpx245
  3. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2016). What factors protect adolescent bullies from developing into criminal and violent offenders? In Kapardis, A. & Farrington, D.P. (Eds.), The Psychology of Crime, Policing and Courts (pp. 44-56). London: Routledge.
  4. Farrington, D.P., & Ttofi, M.M. (2015). Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. In Morizot, J. & Kazemian, L. (Eds) The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior (pp. 19-38). New York: Springer International Publishing.
  5. Ttofi, M.M., Eisner, M., & Bradshaw, C.P. (2014). Bullying prevention: Assessing existing meta-evaluations. In G. Bruinsma & D. Weisburd (Eds.). Encyclopaedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp. 231-242). Springer: New York.
  6. Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., & Ttofi, M.M. (2012). Risk and protective factors for offending. In B.C. Welsh & D.P. Farrington (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of crime prevention (pp. 46 - 69). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. Ttofi, M.M. & Smith, P. (2012). Risk and protective factors in the assessment of school bullies and victims: Implications for future prevention research. In Loeber, R. & Welsh, B. (Eds.), The future of criminology (pp. 79-84). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Protective and promotive factors in the development of offending. In T. Bliesener, A. Beelman, & M. Stemmler (Eds.), Antisocial behaviour and crime: Contributions of theory and evaluation research to prevention and intervention (pp. 71-88). Cambridge, Mass: Hogrefe Publishing.
  9. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2010). School bullying: Risk factors, theories and interventions. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T.H. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of crime (pp. 427-457). Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
  10. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2009).School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2009:6.
  11. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Baldry, A.C. (2008). Effectiveness of programs to reduce school bullying: A systematic review. Stockholm: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (ISBN: 978-91-86027-11-7).

Invited Presentations and Keynote Lectures

  1. Ttofi M.M. Evaluations of interventions against aggression, cyber-aggression and teacher victimization. Invited Seminar, Police Academy, Slovenia, October 19, 2018
  2. Ttofi, M.M. Long-term effects of school bullying in adult life: Implications for health and crime prevention initiatives. Keynote speech at the World Congress on School Violence, Lima, Peru, May 22, 2015
  3. Ttofi, M.M. Long-term effects of school bullying in adult life: Implications for health and crime prevention initiatives. Public Seminar at the Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, April 15, 2015
  4. Ttofi, M.M. School-Based Crime Prevention: A public health initiative. Public Seminar at the Department of Health Sciences, University of York, October 22, 2014.
  5. Ttofi, M.M. Effective interventions with aggressive youth as a form of adult crime prevention. Invited Seminar, Network against Youth Violence, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Cyprus, March 20, 2014.
  6. Ttofi, M.M. Bullying, delinquency and resilience. Keynote speech at the Danish Crime Prevention Day, April 8, 2014.
  7. Ttofi, M.M. Interrupting the continuity from school bullying to adverse outcomes in adult life. Public Seminar at the Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention, University at Buffalo, November 18, 2013.
  8. Ttofi, M.M. School bullying as a crime. Public Seminar, Rotary Club, Cambridge, April 16, 2013.
  9. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of developmental prevention: What have we learned? Conference on "What has been learned from systematic reviews in criminology". The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, April 30, 2012.
  10. Ttofi, M.M. School bullying and externalizing problems later in life. "Tackling Bullying Ten Years On" Invited seminar, Anti-Bullying Alliance, Hallam Conference Centre, London, October 4, 2012.
  11. Ttofi, M.M. School bullying and crime later in life: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Expert testimony given at an All-Party Parliamentary Meeting on Bullying, chaired by Baroness Sal Brinton and MP Barry Sheerman, Westminster, November 26, 2012.
  12. Ttofi, M.M. What factors protect adolescent bullies from developing into criminal offenders? Invited seminar at the Jacobs Foundation Conference on "Adolescence: Explanation and self-regulation of the Unknown". Marbach Castle, Germany, April 7, 2011.
  13. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. Effective methods to reduce school bullying. Invited seminar, Ministry of Education and Culture, Oslo Norway, April 8, 2010 (both authors presented).
  14. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi M.M. Future adverse outcomes of school bullying and the necessity of bullying prevention. Plenary speech at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International School Psychology Association, Dublin, Ireland, July 20, 2010 (both authors presented).
  15. Farrington D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. Effective methods to reduce school bullying. Plenary paper given at European Crime Prevention Network Best Practice Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, December 9, 2009 (both authors presented).