Biography

Dr. Maria Ttofi

BA, BA, M.Phil., Ph.D.

University Lecturer in Psychological Criminology

Ph.D Deputy Director

Research Fellow, Wolfson College


Biography

The academic work of Dr Ttofi revolves around two main areas, namely: (a) psychological criminology, with a focus on early intervention research and developmental criminology; and (b) experimental criminology, with a focus on systematic reviews, meta-analyses and programme evaluation. For her contributions to psychological criminology and intervention research, she was awarded the 2012 Young Scholar Award of the European Association of Psychology and Law as well as the 2012 Early Career Award of the Alberti Center for Bullying Abuse Prevention at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Previous/current post-doctoral fellowships and research projects have been supported by the Leverhulme Trust, the Newton Trust, the British Academy, the US National Institute of Justice, and the Jacobs Foundation.

Research Focus on Systematic Reviews and Programme Evaluation

A major part of Dr Ttofi ’s work focuses on intervention research and programme evaluation, with a special interest in the effectiveness of bullying prevention programmes. She completed, in collaboration with Professor David P. Farrington, a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of school-based prevention programmes in reducing bullying perpetration and victimization. The project was initially conducted under the aegis of the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (only the 30 most high quality methodological evaluations included) and this led to a more comprehensive report for the Campbell Collaboration (53 different programme evaluations included in the systematic review; 44 evaluations included in the meta-analysis).

Research Focus on Early Crime Prevention and Health Promotion Initiatives

Another major part of her research focuses on developmental and life-course criminology. Most of her work in this research area has so far focused on (a) the developmental course and consequences of early behaviour problems (with a special focus primarily on aggressive behaviours of youth); and (b) the detrimental effects of early negative life experiences of youth (with a focus primarily on bullied children and adolescents) on later development. Dr Ttofi has conducted a series of interconnected systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies on the association of school aggression and victimization with internalizing (e.g. depression and anxiety) and externalizing (e.g. delinquency, violent and criminal offending) problems in adult life. Part of her British Academy Project on 'Health and Criminal Outcomes of School Bullying' involved the accumulation of co-ordinated early risk factors research, based on about 30 major prospective longitudinal studies regarding the development of conduct problems, crime and violence through the life course. The main outcomes of this project appear in two special issues of peer-reviewed journals, the Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Researchand the Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, edited in collaboration with Professors Farrington and Lösel, as well as in a comprehensive report conducted under the aegis of the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention. The latter report complemented the previous JACPR and CBMH meta-analyses by providing results of two additional meta-analyses.


Research, Scholarly and Professional Interests

  • Developmental and life-course criminology
  • Quantitative criminology
  • Experimental criminology
  • Systematic and meta-analytic reviews
  • Programme evaluation and intervention research
  • School bullying/aggression
  • Juvenile delinquency and victimization
  • Health/criminal consequences of school aggression and peer victimization
  • Risk, promotive & protective factors against youth offending and violence
  • Early crime prevention

Selected Publications

  1. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Baldry, A.C. (2008). Effectiveness of programs to reduce school bullying: A systematic review. Stockholm: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (ISBN: 978-91-86027-11-7).
  2. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008) Bullying: short-term and long-term effects, and the importance of defiance theory in explanation and prevention. Victims and Offenders, 3 (2), 289-312.
  3. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Reintegrative shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 34 (4), 352 – 368.
  4. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M. & Coid, J.W. (2009). Development of adolescence-limited, late-onset, and persistent offenders from age 8 to age 48. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 150 – 163.
  5. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M.. (2009). Reducing school bullying: Evidence-based implications for policy. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and Justice (vol. 38, pp. 281 – 345). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  6. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2009). School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2009:6.
    Reprinted in French as:
    Farrington, D. P. and Ttofi, M.M. (2010) Programmes scolaires de reduction du harcelement et de la victimisation. Diversite, 162, 55-61.
  7. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2010). School bullying: Risk factors, theories and interventions. In F. Brookman, M. Maguire, H. Pierpoint, & T.H. Bennett (Eds.), Handbook of crime (pp. 427 – 457). Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
  8. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Protective and promotive factors in the development of offending. In T. Bliesener, A. Beelman, & M. Stemmler (Eds.), Antisocial behaviour and crime: Contributions of theory and evaluation research to prevention and intervention (pp. 71 – 88). Cambridge, Mass: Hogrefe Publishing.
  9. Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., Stallings, R., Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Bullying perpetration and victimization as predictors of delinquency and depression in the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 74 – 81.
  10. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2011). Bullying as a predictor of offending, violence and later life outcomes. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 90 – 98. [results based on the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development]
  11. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Lösel, F. (2011). Editorial: School bullying and later offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 77 – 79.
  12. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2011). Editorial: Health consequences of school bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 60 – 62.
  13. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Do the victims of school bullies tend to become depressed later in life? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 (2), 63 – 73.
  14. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). The predictive efficiency of school bullying versus later offending: A systematic/meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 80 – 89.
    Reprinted in French as:
    Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Le lien entre situations de harcèlement et risques de délinquance: Compte-rendu de recherche: un examen systematique/meta-analystique des études longitudinales. Cahiers de la Securité, 16, 162-169.
  15. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2011). Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7, 27 – 56.
  16. Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., Ttofi, M.M. & Theodorakis, N. (2012). School bullying, depression and offending behaviour later in life: An updated systematic review of longitudinal studies. Stockholm: Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (ISBN: 978-91-86027-89-6).
  17. Farrington, D.P., Loeber, R., & Ttofi, M.M. (2012). Risk and protective factors for offending. In B.C. Welsh & D.P. Farrington (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of crime prevention (pp. 46 – 69). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2012). Developmental and psychological theories of offending. In G.M. Davies & A.R. Beech. (Eds.),Forensic psychology, 2nd edition (pp. 37 – 54). Chichester: Wiley.
  19. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a predictor of violence later in life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 17, 405 – 418.
    Reprinted in Spanish as:
    Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a predictor of offending and violence in later life: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. In. Bernal, A.O., Jimenez, S.Y., & Smith, P.K. (Eds.), School bullying and violence: International Perspectives. Madrid, Spain: Biblioteca Nueva, in press.
  20. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Bullying prevention programs: The importance of peer intervention, disciplinary methods and age variations. Journal of Experimental Criminology, online first.
  21. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Risk and protective factors, longitudinal research and bullying prevention. New Directions for Youth Development, 133, 85 – 98.
  22. Ttofi, M.M. & Smith, P.K. (2012). Risk and protective factors in the assessment of school bullies and victims: Implications for future prevention research. In Loeber R. & Welsh, B. (Eds), The future of criminology (pp.79 - 84). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conference Presentations, Seminars and Invited Lectures:

  1. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2007). Defiance Theory in the explanation of bullying; 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Atlanta, Georgia, November, 14, 2007.
  2. Ttofi, M.M. (2008). Parental punishment and sibling bullying; Invited lecture at Clare Hall Women’s Group, Clare Hall College, Cambridge University, January, 31, 2008.
  3. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2008). Family bonding, parental sanctions and aggressive behaviour: A test of Sherman's theory; 4th World Conference on Violence in School and Public Policies, Lisbon, Portugal, June 24, 2008.
  4. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2008). Braithwaite's theory in the explanation of bullying: Implications for theoretically grounded interventions; 8th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 4, 2008.
  5. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2008). Effectiveness of anti-bullying programs: A systematic review; 18th World Meeting of the International Society of Research on Aggression [ISRA], Budapest, Hungary, July 8, 2008.
  6. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P. Baldry, A.C., & Kyvsgaard, B. (2008). Effectiveness of anti-bullying programmes: A systematic review; 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, St Louis, Missouri, November 13, 2008.
  7. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F.A. (2009). Teacher victimization by students: An experimental test of Defiance Theory. Violence in Public Places Conference, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, June 25, 2009.
  8. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2009). Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying; National Institute of Justice Conference, Washington, D.C., June 15, 2009.
  9. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2009). Effective elements of anti-bullying programs. 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, November 4, 2009.
  10. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2009). Ways to reduce school bullying. Invited Lecture at the Danish National Institute for Social Research, Copenhagen, November 18, 2009.
  11. Farrington D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2009). Effective methods to reduce school bullying. Plenary paper given at European Crime Prevention Network Best Practice Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, December 9, 2009.
  12. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2010). Effective methods to reduce school bullying. Ministry of Education and Culture, Oslo Norway, April 8, 2010. [http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/news_/Invited_by_Norway_s_Ministry_of_Education.php]
  13. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi M.M. (2010). Future adverse outcomes of school bullying and the necessity of bullying prevention. Plenary paper given at the 32nd Annual Conference of the International School Psychology Association, Dublin, Ireland, July 20, 2010.
  14. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2010). Criminal and health outcomes of children involved in school bullying: A systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, June 16, 2010.
  15. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2010). Is there a causal link between school bullying and anxiety, depression and self-injurious behaviour? 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Francisco, California, November 19, 2010.
  16. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2010). Is there a causal link between school bullying and later criminal offending? 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Francisco, California, November 19, 2010.
  17. Ttofi, M.M. (2011). What factors protect adolescent bullies from developing into criminal offenders? Invited paper at the Jacobs Foundation Conference on 'Adolescence: Explanation and self-regulation of the Unknown'. Marbach Castle, Germany, April 7, 2011.
  18. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). Future health and criminal outcomes of children involved in school bullying. Panhellenic Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Athens, Greece, May 9, 2011.
  19. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2011). Protective factors against youth violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 63rd American Society of Criminology Conference, Washington DC, November 18, 2011.
  20. Farrington, D.P., Lösel, F., Ttofi, M.M., & Loeber, R. (2012). School bullying and externalizing problems in adult life: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. European Association of Psychology and Law Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, April 10, 2012.
  21. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Lösel, F. (2012). Effects of school bullying on later drug use: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Campbell Collaboration Colloquium, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 31, 2012.
  22. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). School bullying as a risk marker for later violence: Implications for protecting school youth. Campbell Collaboration Colloquium, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 31, 2012.
  23. Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Lösel, F. (2012). Bullying perpetration and victimization as risk factors for drug use later in life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11, 2012.
  24. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). Protective factors against youth violence and offending: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. European Association of Psychology and Law Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, April 11, 2012.
  25. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Protective factors that interrupt continuity from school bullying to offending in adult life: Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. European Association of Psychology and Law Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, April 10, 2012.
  26. Ttofi, M.M. (2012). What factors protect adolescent bullies from developing into criminal and violent offenders: Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. The Future of Criminology Conference, Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University, April 20, 2012.
  27. Farrington, D.P. & Ttofi, M.M. (2012). Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of developmental prevention: What have we learned?Conference on 'What has been learned from systematic reviews in criminology'. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, April 30, 2012.
  28. Ttofi, M.M., Farrington, D.P., & Lösel, F. (2012). Protective factors against school bullying: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11, 2012.
  29. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Protecting children from the impact of school aggression and bullying: A longitudinal approach. , Developmental Section Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, September 6, 2012.
  30. Ttofi, M.M. & Farrington, D.P. (2012). Protecting children from the impact of school aggression and bullying: A longitudinal approach. BPS Developmental Section Annual Conference, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, September 6, 2012. (Paper Selected for a Conference Press Release